There are several techniques that can be used to train your lungs and diaphragm to work more effectively, by increasing the lungs capacity which will help increase the amount of oxygen that is drawn into the lungs and strengthen the diaphragm. As an athlete, I would do a self-audit once a year always trying to see what I could do to improve my performance from year to year. I realized that my breathing was the one thing that was an issue and seemed to not improve as I played until later in the season and my endurance was below average. So I thought about what sport was dependent on developing endurance, so I started researching distance runners and I found that there was breathing exercise that some of the top runners would do to improve their lung capacity.
The concept was developed from a boot camp and a small group training sessions that I ran at the second gym I worked at when I first started. Most boot camps use just body weight for resistance and are really heavy cardio training (at least from the ones that I have attended and or seen) I wanted to include resistance training exercises within the session along with heavy to medium cardio, and core training. One of the main areas that I wanted to focus on was limiting injury but maintaining a medium-high heart rate and allowing the individual to focus on the movement first and not have to focus on counting reps. Here is an example of a training session……….
Regardless of what method you chose to use for your body composition measurement, it is best to use one testing and analysis method to insure accurate and consistent results to limit conflict and false information. Take a few minutes to research and find the best method for you and measure your progress beyond the scale. No matter what your health and fitness goals body composition testing and analysis will be a game changer for you and give you the information you need to truly transform your body.
Everyone (including myself) looks for an edge in the continuing battle to lose body fat. The key is to use those energy stores in the most effective way possible, specifically to maintain an balance that allows you lose body fat maintain or gain lean muscle in a healthy fashion. As I sated in the introduction blog post “ESD training should be the foundation of any training plan” which leads me into the question which form of ESD (Energy System Development) training is the most efficient when its applied to a weight loss plan? Some would say that long durations of slow steady state cardiovascular training such as jogging, or walking would be the best way to lose body fat, and technically that would be correct but these forms of training to lose weight will get you just so far on your journey to drop that last 20 lb. or dropping your first 5 lb.
Just a brief overview of what Energy Systems Development training is by definition is training specific energy system to produce a desired training effect that is specific to the goals of the training program. There are there main energy systems that the body taps into to acquire the energy to perform tasks depending on the duration and the intensity the task. Here is a brief description the three energy systems:
· ATP-CP Phosphagen energy System- used during short term, high intensity activities Ex. Throwing a Shot Put, Sprinting, Olympic lifts of 2-4 reps: Last 1-30 sec. Uses glycogen already stored and available in the muscles.
· Anaerobic Glycolytic energy System - used during medium/high intensity activities, Ex. Strength/endurance: lasts 30sec-3mins. Uses stored glycogen form other tissues in the body such as the liver.
· Aerobic energy System- used during long durations of exercise lasting longer than 30 min to 1 hour. Uses oxygen to convert stored body fat into to ATP for energy. The byproduct of this process lactic acid which is also used as an energy source.
As you look at the definitions of each of these energy systems you might think that the best way to burn that unwanted fat is through the aerobic energy system, but you might be wrong. Lets face it Aerobic exercise is an affordable and easily accessible form of exercise in where this energy system actually uses stored body fat to convert it into usable energy (after about 30-40 minutes of exercise). But you must remember the aerobic system is not as efficient in actually conditioning the body to burn more stored fat, the only way to effectively burn fat for energy is to have enough lean muscle mass to increase your resting metabolic rate which should be the goal of any weight loss or body composition improvement program.
This brings us to what most consider to be the sweet spot of energy system training which is the Anaerobic Glycolytic energy System. This form of energy systems training as compared to the aerobic energy system, which used primarily to improve the efficiency of the cardiovascular system in most training programs, it does not help build and maintain lean muscle mass like the Anaerobic Glycolytic energy System does. This is a major flaw in weight loss training programs that primarily use cardiovascular training to improve weight loss or body composition. In fact in most cases aerobic activity maybe limiting the bodies ability to use stored fat as energy especially if the individual's nutrition is not balanced and up to par. As I mentioned before the only way to effectively burn stored body fat is by increasing lean muscle which in turn improves the individual's resting metabolic rate.
Remember fat loss is about calorie expenditure and we are looking for the most efficient way to use or burn calories if fat loss is your goal. There is a simple element to training that everyone ignores or is ignorant of is you want to train (or workout) to help your body work more efficiently in your normal every day activities (which is the inspiration behind the Atlas Pro Training tag phrase -Train With a Purpose-). You can never out training, out run, out lift bad nutrition habits, BUT you can kick your fat loss into high gear by training with in the second energy system listed which is the Anaerobic Glycolytic energy System. This is considered the sweet spot for calorie expenditure and fat loss due to the fact that this type of training has the potential to increase lean muscle mass which helps you burn more calories at rest and during low intensity activities such as walking, or lifting light loads. Also this energy system taps onto to the aerobic system when performed beyond the 3-5min duration with limited rest times of less than 1 min between movements. This allows you to get more bang for your buck in regards to time spent working out,
There are several ways you can tap into the Anaerobic Glycolytic energy System listed below
Sub-Max weight lifting and Sprinting
Some light Plyometric exercises- Jump Rope, Medicine Ball training
Author: Alwyn Cosgrove
November 18, 2013
FACT or Fable: Fat Metabolism starts after 20 minutes of exercise
January 14, 2015
ESD/Energy Systems Development Training
By Coach E. Allen Founder Atlas Pro Training LLC
This Blog series is an expansion of an article of mine that was published in the November 2016 edition of the Nonahood News. All reputable trainer try to tap into one of more of these energy systems to help their clients reach their specific training goals. Educate yourself and make sure you know the fundamentals of your training program. Enjoy the process and -TRAIN WITH A PURPOSE-
Whether you are high school athlete looking to gain an edge on the competition in your offseason/preseason training program or a weekend warrior training in your spare time for an obstacle race, marathon, or an adult athletic league, or trying to lose that last 10-15 lbs of holiday weight, the old way of improving your physical performance and condition has changed. Enter the phrase Energy System development (ESD) training. ESD training should be the foundation of any training plan to improve your performance; it could be the difference between competing at a high level, or coming up short in a game. In order for muscles to contract and produce movement ATP (adenosine triphosphate) must be present. The body’s energy system is responsible for converting ATP to usable form of energy called ADP (adenosine diphosphate). ADP can be produced using three energy system:
· ATP-CP Phosphagen energy System- used during short term, high intensity activities Ex. Throwing a Shot Put, Sprinting, Olympic lifts of 2-4 reps: Last 1-30 sec
· Anaerobic Glycolytic energy System- used during medium/high intensity activities, Ex. Strength/endurance: lasts 30sec-3mins
· Aerobic energy System- used during long durations of exercise lasting longer than 30 min to 1 hour.
So let’s look at the ATP-CP Phosphagen energy System which is used to produce energy for high intensity, quick powerful bursts of movement. This energy system does not require oxygen to produce ADP from ATP. Creatine phosphate (which is stored in the skeletal muscles) is used to produce form ADP from ATP. This process is instant and the energy created is used and depleted almost just as fast, causing the athlete to fatigue faster. The goal when training this energy system is to use short bouts of exercise at a minimum volume (number of repetitions) to insure full recovery. As the athlete progresses through the training program the training load is increased not the volume (number of repetitions). This form of training (called Plyometric and or ballistic training) is used to increase the explosiveness of athlete, which increases the force that is produced during movement. Example of these forms of training are Box jumps, Medicine ball throws, and in Olympic lifting. This stress is beneficial to an athlete’s performance because by increasing the force that is produced during movement the athlete can run faster (by producing more force against the ground i.e. Box Jumps), which is referred to as improving the ground force reaction of the foot against the surface, which is essential to improving athletic performance. This energy system should be stressed in a conservative manor because the recovery time is longer than the duration of the energy systems use, and should be performed on a firm yet energy absorbent surface like rubber flooring. The quality of the explosive movement is more important than quantity of repetitions of the movement.
The second energy system we are going to look at is the Anaerobic Glycolytic energy System, which uses glycogen stores from the muscle and blood glucose to produce energy. This is considered by many trainers (including myself) as the predominate energy system, which is used to produce energy to sustain movements that last 30 sec to 3 minutes. It does not require oxygen but produces lactate acid which causes muscles to fatigue and shut down. The goal when training this energy system is to improve the lactate threshold (which is the time that it take for the muscle to experience limitations due to the accumulation of lactic acid) the athlete. This is an important aspect of improving the muscular endurance of the athlete, which is the goal to decrease the chance of injury and increase their work capacity during competition. Strength training with a focus on limiting the recovery times 30sec to 1min between sets and exercises; also tempo runs (running at 70-80% effort for short distances less than a mile for repetition).
The third energy system we are going to look at is the Aerobic energy system, which uses oxygen to produce APD from body stored fat and skeletal muscle, making it the most complex of the three and the most labor intensive energy system. The Aerobic energy system is used during activities that last for relatively long durations, like 30 min to 1-2+hours. The goal of training this energy system is to improve the cardiovascular efficiency of the athlete. This form of training improves the work capacity of the athlete allowing them to train for longer periods reducing debilitating cardiovascular fatigue. This could be considered the foundation of improving the performance of the athlete. Steady state cardiovascular training such as distance runs between 1-3 miles (depending on the sport the athlete is training) can be used to train this energy system, and some forms of HIIT (High Intensity Interval Training) with recovery times that are limited to less than 1 minute between exercises.
The goal of any training program should be to develop these energy systems and “train” them to produce the energy in an efficient manor during practice and competition so that energy is readily available to the muscles during physical activity. All of three energy systems are interdependent of each other, but in most sports one energy system or a combination of two of the three are required to make things happen. This goes into the concept of sport specific training and how to create training programs that are designed specifically to produce the improvements in muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness, and improvements in speed and power of the athlete. As your youth athlete enters the offseason training program’s make sure that EDS training is the foundation of their training program.
Over the next few blog post I will be exploring how a training specific energy system can:
- Improve Performance
- Increase Weight Loss
- Increase Muscular size and Strength
Your Comments are welcomed below!